Alphabetical Plant Listing

Leaf Galls

How to Identify, Prevent, and Treat Leaf Galls


What are Leaf Galls?

Leaf galls are abnormal growths on the leaves of plants caused by insects, mites, bacteria, or fungi. These growths can take on a variety of shapes and sizes, and they can be smooth, rough, hairy, or spiny. Leaf galls are typically not harmful to the overall health of the plant, but they can cause aesthetic damage by distorting the appearance of the leaves.

What causes Leaf Galls?

Leaf galls can be caused by a variety of factors, such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, and insects. Some leaf galls are caused by insects like aphids and mites, which cause the plant tissue to enlarge and become distorted. Others are caused by fungi or bacteria that invade the plant tissue and cause the formation of the gall.

Leaf galls can have different life cycles depending on the type of insect or mite that is causing the gall. In general, the insect or mite will lay eggs on or inside the leaf tissue, and as the larva feeds and grows, it secretes chemicals that stimulate the plant tissue to form the gall. The gall can provide the insect or mite with a protected environment to feed and develop. The insect or mite will then emerge as an adult, often in the spring or early summer, and repeat the cycle on new leaves. Some leaf galls, such as those caused by bacteria or fungi, may form without the presence of an insect or mite and can spread to other plants through spores or other means.

What are the Symptoms?

Leaf galls can vary depending on the cause of the galls, but here are some general symptoms:

  • Presence of irregularly-shaped, abnormal growths on leaves, stems, or other plant parts.
  • Galls can be hard, woody, or fleshy, depending on the cause.
  • Galls can range in size from very small to several inches in diameter.
  • Leaves with galls may have a distorted or discolored appearance.
  • Sometimes, there may be small holes or openings in the galls where the insect or mite that caused the gall entered or exited.

It's important to note that some plants may have natural growths or structures that can be mistaken for galls, so it's best to consult with a plant expert or use reliable resources to identify the specific cause of any abnormal growths on your plants.

How to Control and Prevent Leaf Galls?

Leaf galls are caused by a variety of agents, including insects, fungi, bacteria, and nematodes. The control and prevention methods for leaf galls depend on the specific cause. Here are some general tips:

  • Maintain plant health through proper watering, fertilization, and pruning.
  • Remove infected leaves and branches as soon as they are noticed.
  • Practice good garden hygiene by removing plant debris and fallen leaves.
  • Encourage beneficial insects and birds that feed on the agents causing leaf galls.

It is important to identify the specific agent causing the leaf galls in order to implement the most effective control and prevention methods.

Guide Information


Conall, Gilles San Martin, hedera.baltica, Flickr, ChWeiss, Shutterstock

While every effort has been made to describe these plants accurately, please keep in mind that height, bloom time, and color may differ in various climates. The description of these plants has been written based on numerous outside resources.

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