Alphabetical Plant Listing


Diplopoda class

Millipedes are important members of many ecosystems and play a crucial role in breaking down dead plant material and improving soil fertility. While they may not be the most attractive, they are beneficial creatures that help to maintain a healthy environment.

Where to find them

Millipedes are found in many habitats, including forests, deserts, grasslands, and agricultural areas. They are most commonly found in moist environments and typically in areas with abundant organic matter, such as leaves, dead plant material, and decaying wood.

Millipedes are native to many regions of the world, including Africa, Asia, Europe, and North and South America. Some species have also been introduced to other parts of the world through human activities, such as the transport of goods and plants.


Millipedes are elongated, cylindrical arthropods that belong to the class Diplopoda. They have a segmented body, with each segment having two pairs of legs. The number of legs a millipede has can vary depending on the species, but they typically have between 30 and 90 legs.

The body of a millipede is usually brown or black in color, and it can range in size from a few millimeters to several inches long. Some species of millipedes also have a hard exoskeleton, which helps to protect them from predators and drying out.

Millipedes feed on decaying plant material and organic matter, and they play an important role in breaking down dead plant material in the soil. This helps to improve soil fertility and promote plant growth.

Millipedes are generally harmless to humans and do not bite or sting. They are generally nocturnal creatures and will hide during the day in dark, damp places, such as under logs, rocks, or leaves.

Life Cycle

The life cycle of a millipede typically consists of four stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. The specific details of the life cycle can vary depending on the species of millipede, but the following is a general description of the process:

  1. Egg: Millipedes lay their eggs in moist soil or in decaying plant material. The eggs are usually small and are surrounded by a protective layer that helps to keep them safe until they hatch.

  2. Larva: After hatching, the young millipede resembles a small version of the adult and has only a few segments and legs. As the larva grows, it sheds its exoskeleton and adds more segments and legs.

  3. Pupa: After several molts, the larva transforms into a pupa, a resting stage in which the millipede undergoes metamorphosis into an adult. During this stage, the millipede's body changes, and its legs and other structures develop.

  4. Adult: Once the metamorphosis is complete, the millipede emerges from the pupal stage as an adult. The adult millipede has a fully developed body and is capable of reproducing and continuing the life cycle.

Millipedes generally live for several years, and the length of their life cycle can vary depending on environmental factors, such as temperature and moisture levels.

Why a Beneficial Arthropod?

Millipedes are beneficial arthropods because they play an important role in breaking down dead plant material and organic matter in the soil. This process helps to improve soil fertility and promotes plant growth.

By feeding on dead leaves, stems, and other organic material, millipedes help to decompose this material and turn it into organic matter that can be used by plants. This process also helps to improve soil structure and porosity, making it easier for water and air to penetrate the soil and reach the roots of plants.

In addition to breaking down dead plant material, millipedes also help to control populations of other insects. By consuming insect eggs and small insects, they help to reduce the populations of harmful insects, such as mites and aphids.

Overall, millipedes are important members of many ecosystems and play a crucial role in maintaining the health and fertility of the soil. While they may not be the most attractive, they are beneficial creatures that help to promote plant growth and improve the health of the environment.

Attract this Beneficial Arthropod to your Garden

To attract millipedes to your garden, you can create a suitable environment for them by providing the following:

  1. Moisture: Millipedes need moist soil to survive, so make sure your garden has adequate moisture. You can do this by watering your plants regularly and maintaining a layer of organic mulch in the soil to help retain moisture.

  2. Shelter: Millipedes need shelter to hide during the day and protect themselves from predators. You can provide this by leaving piles of leaves, mulch, or other organic material in your garden.

  3. Food: Millipedes feed on decaying plant material and organic matter, so make sure there is plenty available in your garden. Leave fallen leaves and other organic debris on the ground, or compost your yard waste to create a source of food for millipedes.

  4. Cool temperatures: Millipedes are most active in cool temperatures, so try to create a shady, cool area in your garden for them to inhabit.

By creating a suitable environment for millipedes in your garden, you can help to attract them and promote their populations. Just remember, millipedes are beneficial arthropods and should not be harmed or disturbed once in your garden.

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Juntee, Shutterstock

While every effort has been made to describe these plants accurately, please keep in mind that height, bloom time, and color may differ in various climates. The description of these plants has been written based on numerous outside resources.

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