Alphabetical Plant Listing

Linaria vulgaris (Yellow Toadflax)

Yellow Toadflax, Bread and Butter, Brideweed, Bridewort, Butter and Eggs, Antirrhinum linaria


Linaria vulgaris (Yellow Toadflax) is an erect perennial boasting masses of bright yellow or cream snapdragon-like flowers from late spring to the first frosts. They are borne in terminal clusters on stiff stems bearing narrow, pale green leaves arranged in a spiral. Each blossom features an orange spot on its lower lip and a small straight spur. Attractive to bees, butterflies, and other insects, the flowers are followed by round, dark-colored seeds that may disperse over a long distance in the wind, or may be moved by water and ants. Yellow Toadflax also spreads aggressively by runners. The roots of a single plant can extend 10 feet (3 m) and give rise to other plants every few inches, making it difficult to eradicate. This handsome perennial weed is listed as a noxious weed in several western US states and Canadian provinces. It should be used with caution.

  • Grows up to 2 ft. tall (60 cm).
  • Thrives in full sun in moderately fertile, light, well-drained soil. Prefers sandy soil.
  • After flowering, plants can be cut back to prevent self-seeding.
  • Keep an eye out for aphids, and powdery mildew.
  • Propagate by seed in pots in a cold frame in early spring. Propagate by division or softwood cuttings in spring.
  • Native to Europe, southwestern Asia.
  • Find where this species is invasive in the United States.

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Requirements

Hardiness 3 – 9
Climate Zones 1, 1A, 1B, 2, 2A, 2B, 3, 3A, 3B, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24
Plant Type Perennials
Exposure Full Sun
Season of Interest Spring (Late)
Summer (Early,Mid,Late)
Fall
Height 1' – 2' (30cm – 60cm)
Water Needs Average
Maintenance Low
Soil Type Loam, Sand
Soil pH Acid, Alkaline, Neutral
Soil Drainage Well-Drained
Characteristics Showy
Native Plants United Kingdom
Attracts Butterflies
Garden Uses Beds and Borders, Underplanting Roses and Shrubs
Garden Styles Informal and Cottage, Prairie and Meadow

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V. Tarasenko, Shutterstock

While every effort has been made to describe these plants accurately, please keep in mind that height, bloom time, and color may differ in various climates. The description of these plants has been written based on numerous outside resources.


Requirements

Hardiness 3 – 9
Climate Zones 1, 1A, 1B, 2, 2A, 2B, 3, 3A, 3B, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24
Plant Type Perennials
Exposure Full Sun
Season of Interest Spring (Late)
Summer (Early,Mid,Late)
Fall
Height 1' – 2' (30cm – 60cm)
Water Needs Average
Maintenance Low
Soil Type Loam, Sand
Soil pH Acid, Alkaline, Neutral
Soil Drainage Well-Drained
Characteristics Showy
Native Plants United Kingdom
Attracts Butterflies
Garden Uses Beds and Borders, Underplanting Roses and Shrubs
Garden Styles Informal and Cottage, Prairie and Meadow

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