Alphabetical Plant Listing

Avicennia germinans (Black Mangrove)

Black Mangrove, Avicennia nitida


Avicennia germinans (Black Mangrove) is a medium-sized, evergreen shrub or tree with a rounded, densely foliated crown of spreading branches. It bears thick, elliptic, simple and opposite leaves, 2-3 in. long (5-7 cm). Smooth and leathery, they are dark green above and silver-white underneath. The surface of the leaves is often covered with salt crystals that are secreted through salt glands in the leaves. Blooming year-round, small white flowers with yellow centers appear in short branched spikes at the tips of the branches. Very fragrant, they are rich in nectar and attract a variety of pollinators including butterflies, bees, wasps, and flies. They are an important source of high quality mangrove honey. The blossoms are followed by green, fleshy fruits which consist of large flattened capsules of seeds. They often germinate while still on the tree and burst open when ripe to reveal the seeds. The bark is dark gray and smooth in youth, becoming scaly on larger trunks. The roots produce vertical branches (pneumatophores), which rise from muddy bottoms around the tree. They help the tree breathe during water inundation. Native to the Southern United States, South America and the Atlantic Coast of tropical Africa, Black Mangrove is tolerant of waterlogged conditions and of salt in both the air and soil. It is excellent for bank stabilization, erosion control or as a hedge bordering bodies of salt water. It makes a nice shade tree or a screening tree due to its thick foliage. Like other species of mangroves, Black Mangrove is able to withstand major storm events like hurricanes.

  • Grows up to 10-40 ft. tall (3-12 m) and 10-30 ft. wide (3-9 m).
  • Performs best in full sun in clay to sandy, moist soils. Highly tolerant of frequent inundation, salt spray, salty wind and saline to brackish water without injury.
  • No serious disease issues.
  • Propagate by seed or by propagule, which form while still attached to the mother plant.
  • Native to coastal areas of Texas and Florida, and ranges as far north as southern Louisiana and coastal Georgia in the United States. It also grows in tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas, on both the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts, and on the Atlantic Coast of tropical Africa.

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Requirements

Hardiness 9 – 11
Plant Type Shrubs, Trees
Exposure Full Sun
Season of Interest Spring (Early,Mid,Late)
Summer (Early,Mid,Late)
Fall
Winter
Height 10' – 40' (3m – 12m)
Spread 10' – 30' (3m – 9m)
Water Needs Average, High
Maintenance Low
Soil Type Clay, Loam, Sand
Soil pH Acid, Alkaline, Neutral
Soil Drainage Moist but Well-Drained, Moisture Retentive, Poorly Drained
Characteristics Fragrant, Showy, Evergreen, Fruit & Berries
Native Plants United States, Southeast, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Southwest, Texas
Tolerance Salt, Wet Soil
Attracts Birds, Butterflies
Garden Styles Coastal Garden

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Forest and Kim Starr, Katjia Schulz, James St John, Jimduggan24, Flickr

While every effort has been made to describe these plants accurately, please keep in mind that height, bloom time, and color may differ in various climates. The description of these plants has been written based on numerous outside resources.


Requirements

Hardiness 9 – 11
Plant Type Shrubs, Trees
Exposure Full Sun
Season of Interest Spring (Early,Mid,Late)
Summer (Early,Mid,Late)
Fall
Winter
Height 10' – 40' (3m – 12m)
Spread 10' – 30' (3m – 9m)
Water Needs Average, High
Maintenance Low
Soil Type Clay, Loam, Sand
Soil pH Acid, Alkaline, Neutral
Soil Drainage Moist but Well-Drained, Moisture Retentive, Poorly Drained
Characteristics Fragrant, Showy, Evergreen, Fruit & Berries
Native Plants United States, Southeast, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Southwest, Texas
Tolerance Salt, Wet Soil
Attracts Birds, Butterflies
Garden Styles Coastal Garden

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