Native Plants / Southeast
Southeast Native Plants
A plant is considered native if it has occurred naturally in a particular region or ecosystem without human introduction. There are many benefits to growing native plants. First, these plants are better adapted to soils, moisture, and weather than exotic plants that evolved in other parts of the world. They need fewer fertilizers, and pesticides or use less water. Second, they are unlikely to escape and become invasive, destroying natural habitats. Third, they support wildlife, providing shelter and food for native birds and insects, while exotic plants do not.
Abies fraseri (Fraser Fir)
Abies fraseri (Fraser Fir) is a medium-sized evergreen conifer of narrow, pyramidal habit with a spire-like crown and resinous stems densely clad with flattened, short, turpentine-scented needles, shiny dark green above with two silver bands beneath. The seed cones, up to 3 in. long (7 cm), are dark purple when young turning light brown with conspicuously protruding bracts. Held upright along the branches, they create a lovely contrast against the deep green foliage.
Acacia farnesiana (Sweet Acacia)
Prized for its highly fragrant flowers, Acacia farnesiana (Sweet Acacia) is a semi-evergreen multi-trunked shrub or small tree with a naturally spreading, vaselike shape. Its zig-zag stems are fully armed with sharp thorns and clad with feathery, finely divided leaflets of soft green color. Clouds of small, bright golden-yellow, puff-like flowers, 1/2 in. (1 cm), appear in clusters in late winter to early spring, then sporadically after each new flush of growth, providing a long-lasting floral display.
Acalypha reptans (Dwarf Chenille)
Acalypha reptans (Dwarf Chenille) is a compact, somewhat trailing evergreen shrub noted for its unusual and eye-catching, crimson flower spikes, up to 3 in. long (7 cm). Free-flowering, the blossoms are produced sporadically throughout the year.
Acer floridanum (Florida Maple)
An attractive and versatile tree for the home landscape, Acer floridanum (Florida Maple) is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree with an oval to rounded crown of moderate density. Its foliage of opposite, simple, palmately lobed leaves, 2-4 in. (5-10 cm), features 3-5 somewhat rounded lobes. Dark green above and paler underneath in summer, the leaves change to a brilliant palette of yellows, oranges, and reds in the fall.
Acer negundo (Box Elder)
Hardy and fast-growing, Acer negundo (Box Elder) is a suckering, vigorous, deciduous tree of upright habit with an irregular rounded canopy of widely spreading branches. The opposite, pinnately compound, light green leaves are composed of 3-7 leaflets, 6-15 in. long (15-37 cm), which turn a dull yellow in the fall.
Acer rubrum (Red Maple)
Noted for its lovely fall color, Acer rubrum (Red Maple) is a relatively fast-growing deciduous tree of pyramidal habit when young, becoming rounded to oval at maturity. In early spring, tiny red flowers, borne in erect clusters, appear before the leaves and are followed by red fruit. Emerging red tinged in spring, the leaves change to dark green with whitish undersides and often develop dazzling yellows and red in the fall. This Red Maple also provides some winter interest, with its attractive, smooth gray bark, often ridged and furrowed with age.
Acer saccharum (Sugar Maple)
Noted for its spectacular fall color, Acer saccharum (Sugar Maple) is a large, deciduous tree with a straight trunk, wide-spreading branches and a dense, oval to rounded crown. Its foliage of five-lobed leaves, 3-6 in. (7-15 cm) ranges from medium to dark green in summer, and changes to a brilliant palette of yellows, oranges, and reds in the fall.
Achillea millefolium (White Yarrow)
Achillea millefolium (White Yarrow) is a graceful perennial wildflower that produces an abundance of huge, flat clusters, 5 in. across (12 cm), packed with 20-25 creamy-white flowers.
Acoelorrhaphe wrightii (Paurotis Palm)
Acoelorrhaphe wrightii (Paurotis Palm) is an attractive, clump-forming, multi-stemmed, evergreen palm with a slender trunk and stiff, fan-shaped leaves. The leaves, about 2 ft. across (60 cm), are light green above and slightly silver underneath. They are attached to long spiny petioles that can reach 3 ft. in length (90 cm). The foliage can be so lush, from the ground up, as to hide the trunk.
Acorus calamus (Sweet Flag)
Ideal for wet areas, Acorus calamus (Sweet Flag) is a spreading, marginal aquatic perennial forming a tuft of erect, sword-shaped, bright green leaves adorned with one slightly wavy edge and a prominent midrib. In late spring, this plant bears inconspicuous greenish-yellow flowers in finger-like inflorescences, 2-4 in. long (5-10 cm), which give way to tiny, reddish berries. Both the crushed foliage and rootstocks have a pleasant aromatic fragrance. A great choice for naturalizing, Sweet Flag is quite versatile in the garden and makes a decorative foliage accent in water gardens and around ponds.
Acrostichum danaeifolium (Giant Leather Fern)
Acrostichum danaeifolium (Giant Leather Fern) is an evergreen fern adorned with very tall, erect to arching, pinnately divided fronds. Up to 12 ft. long (360cm), the fronds are deep green above, paler beneath. Incredibly showy, the fertile fronds are densely coated with reddish to cinnamon spore cases, giving the plant a bi-color appearance. Native to Florida, Giant Leather Fern occurs naturally in brackish and freshwater marshes of the central and southern peninsula.
Actaea pachypoda (White Baneberry)
Perfect for shade gardens, Actaea pachypoda (White Baneberry) is an herbaceous perennial forming a clump of finely divided, bright green foliage, enhanced by dense, globular clusters of small fluffy white flowers in late spring and early summer.
Actaea racemosa (Black Cohosh)
Striking all summer long, award-winning Actaea racemosa (Black Cohosh) is a beautiful perennial with deep green, finely divided foliage, enhanced by gracefully arching wands of fragrant white flowers in late summer and fall. The blooms are packed in fluffy spikes, up to 2 ft. long (60 cm), which rise well above the foliage and mature into attractive seed pods.
Adiantum aleuticum (Maidenhair Fern)
Incredibly attractive, Adiantum aleuticum (Maidenhair Fern) is a deciduous or semi-evergreen, perennial fern with graceful, bright green fronds which open like the fingers of a hand atop upright, shiny, purple-black wiry stems. Each finger is further divided into a series of triangular segments (pinnules).
Adiantum capillus-veneris (Southern Maidenhair Fern)
Adiantum capillus-veneris (Southern Maidenhair Fern) is a slowly spreading, semi-evergreen fern forming a mound of gently arching or pendant, twice divided, delicate fronds adorned with wiry, black stems.