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Tsuga canadensis (Eastern Hemlock)

Eastern Hemlock, Common Hemlock, Canada Hemlock, Spruce Hemlock, White Hemlock

Tsuga canadensis, Eastern Hemlock, Common Hemlock, Canada Hemlock, Spruce Hemlock, White Hemlock, Evergreen Shrub, Evergreen Tree

Tsuga canadensis (Eastern Hemlock) is a vigorous, straight-trunked, broadly pyramidal evergreen tree clothed with flat sprays of short deep green needles adorned with two white bands on their undersides. Its long, slightly descending branches with pendulous tips give this tree a graceful appearance. It produces an abundance of small, pendant, ovoid, brown cones, that hang from the tree like Christmas ornaments. The bark is purplish-gray and deeply furrowed on mature trees. Eastern Hemlock grows at a slow to medium rate, about 12-24 in. per year (30-60 cm). A graceful shade tree, it can also be trimmed into a magnificent hedge or used as a specimen or in groupings. Eastern Hemlock provides excellent nesting habitat for many species of birds including black-throated blue warblers, black-throated green warblers, and blackburnian warblers. The seeds are eaten by birds and mammals, and in the winter the foliage is browsed by white-tailed deer, moose, and snowshoe hares.

  • Grows up to 40-70 ft. tall (12-21 m) and 25-35 ft. wide (7-11 m).
  • A full sun or part shade lover, this plant is easily grown in humus-rich, acidic, moist, well-drained soils. Tolerates full shade. Shelter from cold, drying winds. Intolerant of drought.
  • Perfect as a specimen plant.
  • Low maintenance, no pruning required.
  • No serious pest issues. Keep an eye out for butt rot fungus and root rot fungus.
  • Propagate by seed in containers in a cold frame in spring; root semi-ripe cuttings in late summer or early autumn.
  • Native to North America.

Requirements

Hardiness 3 - 7
Heat Zones 1 - 8
Climate Zones 2, 2A, 2B, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 17, A3
Plant Type Conifers, Trees
Plant Family Pinaceae
Common names Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock
Exposure Full Sun, Partial Sun
Season of Interest Spring (Early, Mid, Late)
Summer (Early, Mid, Late)
Fall
Winter
Height 40' - 70'
(12.2m - 21.3m)
Spread 25' - 35'
(7.6m - 10.7m)
Maintenance Low
Water Needs Average
Soil Type Loam, Sand
Soil pH Acid, Neutral
Soil Drainage Moist but Well-Drained, Well-Drained
Characteristics Fragrant, Showy, Evergreen
Native Plants Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Midwest, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Northeast, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Southeast, Tennessee, United States, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin
Tolerance Full Shade
Attracts Birds, Butterflies
Garden Uses Hedges And Screens
Garden Styles Prairie and Meadow, Informal and Cottage
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Recommended Companion Plants

Kalmia latifolia (Mountain Laurel)
Betula lenta (Sweet Birch)
Viburnum acerifolium (Mapleleaf Viburnum)
Hamamelis virginiana (Virginian Witch Hazel)
Maianthemum canadense (Canada Mayflower)
Acer saccharum (Sugar Maple)
While every effort has been made to describe these plants accurately, please keep in mind that height, bloom time, and color may differ in various climates. The description of these plants has been written based on numerous outside resources.
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Requirements

Hardiness 3 - 7
Heat Zones 1 - 8
Climate Zones 2, 2A, 2B, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 17, A3
Plant Type Conifers, Trees
Plant Family Pinaceae
Common names Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock
Exposure Full Sun, Partial Sun
Season of Interest Spring (Early, Mid, Late)
Summer (Early, Mid, Late)
Fall
Winter
Height 40' - 70'
(12.2m - 21.3m)
Spread 25' - 35'
(7.6m - 10.7m)
Maintenance Low
Water Needs Average
Soil Type Loam, Sand
Soil pH Acid, Neutral
Soil Drainage Moist but Well-Drained, Well-Drained
Characteristics Fragrant, Showy, Evergreen
Native Plants Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Midwest, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Northeast, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Southeast, Tennessee, United States, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin
Tolerance Full Shade
Attracts Birds, Butterflies
Garden Uses Hedges And Screens
Garden Styles Prairie and Meadow, Informal and Cottage
How Many Plants
Do I Need?

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