Alphabetical Plant Listing

Celtis occidentalis (Common Hackberry)

Common Hackberry, Northern Hackberry, American Hackberry, Nettle Tree, Beaverwood, False Elm, Celtis canina, Celtis occidentalis var. canina, Celtis occidentalis var. cordata, Celtis occidentalis var. crassifolia, Celtis occidentalis var. occidentalis, Celtis occidentalis var. pumila, Celtis pumila var. deamii


Tough and sturdy, Celtis occidentalis (Common Hackberry) is a medium to large deciduous tree of pyramidal habit in youth, developing an open, spreading crown with age. The ascending, arching branches, often with pendulous branch tips, are covered with ovate, glossy to dull green leaves, 2-5 in. long (5-12 cm), which turn an undistinguished yellow in the fall. Greenish flowers appear in spring in clusters (male flowers) and solitary (female flowers). They provide pollen and nectar for bees, butterflies and hummingbirds. The female flowers are followed by a heavy crop of fleshy, sweet and edible berries which persist through winter. Many birds, including quail, pheasants, woodpeckers, and cedar waxwings, relish the fruits. The unique gray bark is often covered with conspicuous, protruding, corky warts and ridges, adding interest in the winter landscape. Native to central and northeastern North America, Common Hackberry is a tough shade tree that may be used as a lawn tree or street tree. Cultivars immune to witches broom are better selections than the species for landscape use.

  • Grows up to 40-60 ft. tall and wide (12-18 m). Adds 24-36 in. per year (60-90 cm).
  • A full sun lover, this plant is easily grown in organically rich, moist, well-drained soils. Tolerant of partial shade. Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions including dry sites, occasional drought, wet sites, alkaline soil, clay soil, periodic flooding.
  • Low maintenance. Prune during dormant season.
  • Keep an eye out for beetle leaves, caterpillars, hackberry nipple gall. Branches may become deformed due to bushy growths called witches-brooms produced by mites and fungi
  • Highly susceptible to ice damage, weak wood and branch structure.
  • Propagate stratified seed sown in spring or untreated seed sown in fall. Can be rooted from juvenile wood and from root sprouts or suckers.
  • Native to central and northeastern North America.

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Requirements

Hardiness 2 – 9
Heat Zones 1 – 9
Climate Zones 1, 1A, 1B, 2, 2A, 2B, 3, 3A, 3B, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24
Plant Type Trees
Exposure Full Sun, Partial Sun
Season of Interest Spring (Early,Mid,Late)
Summer (Early,Mid,Late)
Fall
Winter
Height 40' – 60' (12m – 18m)
Spread 40' – 60' (12m – 18m)
Water Needs Average
Maintenance Low
Soil Type Clay, Loam, Sand
Soil pH Acid, Alkaline, Neutral
Soil Drainage Moist but Well-Drained, Well-Drained
Characteristics Showy, Fruit & Berries
Native Plants United States, Midwest, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Northeast, Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Rocky Mountains, Colorado, Wyoming, Southeast, Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, Southwest, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas
Tolerance Clay Soil, Drought, Wet Soil
Attracts Birds, Butterflies, Hummingbirds
Garden Styles Informal and Cottage, Prairie and Meadow

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By islavicek, Jose Luis Vega, Rudy Bagozzi, Shutterstock, 123rf

While every effort has been made to describe these plants accurately, please keep in mind that height, bloom time, and color may differ in various climates. The description of these plants has been written based on numerous outside resources.


Requirements

Hardiness 2 – 9
Heat Zones 1 – 9
Climate Zones 1, 1A, 1B, 2, 2A, 2B, 3, 3A, 3B, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24
Plant Type Trees
Exposure Full Sun, Partial Sun
Season of Interest Spring (Early,Mid,Late)
Summer (Early,Mid,Late)
Fall
Winter
Height 40' – 60' (12m – 18m)
Spread 40' – 60' (12m – 18m)
Water Needs Average
Maintenance Low
Soil Type Clay, Loam, Sand
Soil pH Acid, Alkaline, Neutral
Soil Drainage Moist but Well-Drained, Well-Drained
Characteristics Showy, Fruit & Berries
Native Plants United States, Midwest, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Northeast, Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Rocky Mountains, Colorado, Wyoming, Southeast, Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, Southwest, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas
Tolerance Clay Soil, Drought, Wet Soil
Attracts Birds, Butterflies, Hummingbirds
Garden Styles Informal and Cottage, Prairie and Meadow

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