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Celtis occidentalis (Common Hackberry)

Common Hackberry, Northern Hackberry, American Hackberry, Nettle Tree, Beaverwood, False Elm, Celtis canina, Celtis occidentalis var. canina, Celtis occidentalis var. cordata, Celtis occidentalis var. crassifolia, Celtis occidentalis var. occidentalis, Celtis occidentalis var. pumila, Celtis pumila var. deamii

Celtis occidentalis, Common Hackberry, Northern Hackberry, American Hackberry, Nettle Tree, Beaverwood, False Elm, Tree with fall color, Fall color, Attractive bark Tree
Celtis occidentalis, Common Hackberry, Northern Hackberry, American Hackberry, Nettle Tree, Beaverwood, False Elm, Tree with fall color, Fall color, Attractive bark Tree
Celtis occidentalis, Common Hackberry, Northern Hackberry, American Hackberry, Nettle Tree, Beaverwood, False Elm, Tree with fall color, Fall color, Attractive bark Tree
Celtis occidentalis, Common Hackberry, Northern Hackberry, American Hackberry, Nettle Tree, Beaverwood, False Elm, Tree with fall color, Fall color, Attractive bark Tree

Tough and sturdy, Celtis occidentalis (Common Hackberry) is a medium to large deciduous tree of pyramidal habit in youth, developing an open, spreading crown with age. The ascending, arching branches, often with pendulous branch tips, are covered with ovate, glossy to dull green leaves, 2-5 in. long (5-12 cm), which turn an undistinguished yellow in the fall. Greenish flowers appear in spring in clusters (male flowers) and solitary (female flowers). They provide pollen and nectar for bees, butterflies and hummingbirds. The female flowers are followed by a heavy crop of fleshy, sweet and edible berries which persist through winter. Many birds, including quail, pheasants, woodpeckers, and cedar waxwings, relish the fruits. The unique gray bark is often covered with conspicuous, protruding, corky warts and ridges, adding interest in the winter landscape. Native to central and northeastern North America, Common Hackberry is a tough shade tree that may be used as a lawn tree or street tree. Cultivars immune to witches broom are better selections than the species for landscape use.

  • Grows up to 40-60 ft. tall and wide (12-18 m). Adds 24-36 in. per year (60-90 cm).
  • A full sun lover, this plant is easily grown in organically rich, moist, well-drained soils. Tolerant of partial shade. Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions including dry sites, occasional drought, wet sites, alkaline soil, clay soil, periodic flooding.
  • Low maintenance. Prune during dormant season.
  • Keep an eye out for beetle leaves, caterpillars, hackberry nipple gall. Branches may become deformed due to bushy growths called witches-brooms produced by mites and fungi
  • Highly susceptible to ice damage, weak wood and branch structure.
  • Propagate stratified seed sown in spring or untreated seed sown in fall. Can be rooted from juvenile wood and from root sprouts or suckers.
  • Native to central and northeastern North America.

Requirements

Hardiness 2 - 9
Heat Zones 1 - 9
Climate Zones 1, 1A, 1B, 2, 2A, 2B, 3, 3A, 3B, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24
Plant Type Trees
Plant Family Cannabaceae
Common names Hackberry, Common Hackberry
Exposure Full Sun, Partial Sun
Season of Interest Spring (Early, Mid, Late)
Summer (Early, Mid, Late)
Fall
Winter
Height 40' - 60'
(12.2m - 18.3m)
Spread 40' - 60'
(12.2m - 18.3m)
Maintenance Low
Water Needs Low, Average
Soil Type Clay, Loam, Sand
Soil pH Acid, Alkaline, Neutral
Soil Drainage Moist but Well-Drained, Well-Drained
Characteristics Showy, Fruit & Berries
Native Plants United States, New Jersey, New York, New Hampshire, Maryland, Vermont, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, Rocky Mountains, Southeast, Northeast, Southwest, Midwest, Indiana, Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin, Missouri, Minnesota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Michigan, North Dakota, Kansas, Ohio, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Kentucky, Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Wyoming, Colorado
Tolerance Drought, Dry Soil, Clay Soil, Wet Soil
Attracts Bees, Birds, Butterflies, Hummingbirds
Garden Styles Prairie and Meadow, Informal and Cottage
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Recommended Companion Plants

Ilex opaca (American Holly)
Carya ovata (Shagbark Hickory)
Cercis canadensis (Eastern Redbud)
Clethra alnifolia (Summersweet)
While every effort has been made to describe these plants accurately, please keep in mind that height, bloom time, and color may differ in various climates. The description of these plants has been written based on numerous outside resources.
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Requirements

Hardiness 2 - 9
Heat Zones 1 - 9
Climate Zones 1, 1A, 1B, 2, 2A, 2B, 3, 3A, 3B, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24
Plant Type Trees
Plant Family Cannabaceae
Common names Hackberry, Common Hackberry
Exposure Full Sun, Partial Sun
Season of Interest Spring (Early, Mid, Late)
Summer (Early, Mid, Late)
Fall
Winter
Height 40' - 60'
(12.2m - 18.3m)
Spread 40' - 60'
(12.2m - 18.3m)
Maintenance Low
Water Needs Low, Average
Soil Type Clay, Loam, Sand
Soil pH Acid, Alkaline, Neutral
Soil Drainage Moist but Well-Drained, Well-Drained
Characteristics Showy, Fruit & Berries
Native Plants United States, New Jersey, New York, New Hampshire, Maryland, Vermont, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, Rocky Mountains, Southeast, Northeast, Southwest, Midwest, Indiana, Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin, Missouri, Minnesota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Michigan, North Dakota, Kansas, Ohio, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Kentucky, Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Wyoming, Colorado
Tolerance Drought, Dry Soil, Clay Soil, Wet Soil
Attracts Bees, Birds, Butterflies, Hummingbirds
Garden Styles Prairie and Meadow, Informal and Cottage
How Many Plants
Do I Need?

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