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Crataegus douglasii (Black Hawthorn)

Black Hawthorn, River Hawthorn, Western Thornapple, Crataegus columbiana, Crataegus douglasii var. douglasii

Crataegus douglasii, Black Hawthorn, Crataegus columbiana, Crataegus douglasii var. douglasii, Red fruit, red berries, Winter fruits, White flowers,
Crataegus douglasii, Black Hawthorn, Crataegus columbiana, Crataegus douglasii var. douglasii, Red fruit, red berries, Winter fruits, White flowers,
Crataegus douglasii, Black Hawthorn, Crataegus columbiana, Crataegus douglasii var. douglasii, Red fruit, red berries, Winter fruits, White flowers,

Crataegus douglasii (Black Hawthorn) is a large shrub or small deciduous tree with a long trunk and a compact, round-topped crown of stout, spreading branches armed with 1 in. long thorns (2.5 cm). They are clothed with shiny, leathery, oval, toothed leaves, 3-5 in. long (7-12 cm). In late spring to early summer, a profusion of unpleasantly scented, white flowers held in flat-topped clusters (corymbs) provide a spectacular spring floral display. The flowers attract butterflies, moths, and other pollinators. They are followed by edible, deep red fruits which ripen to black in late summer. The berries may persist on the tree and remain attractive for a long time. The foliage may turn attractive shades of red, orange, and yellow in fall, before shedding to the ground. Black Hawthorn is a handsome ornamental with its showy white flowers, glossy foliage, and shiny black fruits. Fire tolerant, it is an excellent soil and streambank stabilizer. Its brushy growth form makes it a desirable species for hedges and barriers.

  • Grows up to 10-25 ft. tall and wide (3-8 m). Will sprout and sucker to form small, dense, impenetrable thickets.
  • A full sun lover, this tree is easily grown in moist to wet soils. Tolerates part shade but best fruit production occurs in full sun.
  • Perfect as a specimen tree for lawns or streets, native plant gardens, or for erosion control.
  • Requires only minimal pruning in late winter or early spring, to remove damaged, diseased, or misplaced growth.
  • Keep an eye out for cedar-hawthorn rust, cedar-quince rust, fireblight, fungal leaf spots, powdery mildew, cankers, apple scab, borers, caterpillars, lacebugs, leafminers, and scale.
  • Propagate by seed. 6-8 weeks of moist chilling improves germination of stored seed. Scarification may also be necessary.
  • Native to western North America.

Hawthorn: How to Grow and Care with Success


Understanding how to grow and care for Hawthorn is crucial as these trees offer ecological benefits like attracting pollinators, providing wildlife habitats, and medicinal properties for humans. Proper knowledge ensures healthy growth, disease prevention, and the thriving of these striking additions to our landscapes.

Requirements

Hardiness 3 - 9
Climate Zones 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18
Plant Type Trees
Plant Family Rosaceae
Genus Crataegus
Common names Hawthorn, Black Hawthorn
Exposure Full Sun
Season of Interest Spring (Late)
Summer (Early)
Fall
Winter
Height 10' - 25'
(3m - 7.6m)
Spread 10' - 25'
(3m - 7.6m)
Maintenance Average
Water Needs Average, High
Soil Type Chalk, Clay, Loam, Sand
Soil pH Acid, Alkaline, Neutral
Soil Drainage Moist but Well-Drained, Moisture Retentive
Characteristics Fragrant, Showy, Fruit & Berries
Native Plants United States, Alaska, Pacific Northwest, Rocky Mountains, Midwest, California, Southwest, South Dakota, North Dakota, Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, Nevada, Montana, Utah, Wyoming
Tolerance Drought
Attracts Birds, Butterflies
Garden Uses Hedges And Screens
Garden Styles Informal and Cottage, Prairie and Meadow
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Alternative Plants to Consider

Crataegus coccinea (Scarlet Hawthorn)
Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese Hawthorn)
Crataegus punctata (Dotted Hawthorn)
Crataegus marshallii (Parsley Hawthorn)
Crataegus mollis (Downy Hawthorn)
Crataegus persimilis ‘Prunifolia’ (Cockspur Hawthorn)

Recommended Companion Plants

Prunus virginiana (Chokecherry)
Amelanchier alnifolia (Serviceberry)
Populus tremuloides (American Aspen)
Rosa woodsii (Western Wild Rose)
Symphoricarpos albus (Common Snowberry)
Deschampsia cespitosa (Tufted Hair Grass)

Find In One of Our Guides or Gardens

Small Trees and Shrubs That Attract Birds
Green Canopy, Better World: Exploring the Benefits of Trees
Trees that Invite Wildlife to Your Garden
35 Best Flowering Trees for a Spectacular Garden Display
Small Trees, Big Impact: Maximize Your Garden’s Potential
Spectacular Trees for Vibrant Fall Colors: A Gardener’s Guide
Pure White Flowers for a Touch of Elegance in Your Garden
35 Flowering Shrubs That Thrive in Full Sun
Crataegus (Hawthorn) – What Is Wrong With My Tree?
Crataegus (Hawthorn): Pests and Diseases to Watch Out For
Hawthorn: How to Grow and Care with Success
Crataegus (Hawthorn)
For the Love of Bees: Best Flowers to Attract them to Your Garden
May Birth Flower: What is my Birth Flower?
Native Plant Alternatives to Crataegus monogyna (Common Hawthorn)
While every effort has been made to describe these plants accurately, please keep in mind that height, bloom time, and color may differ in various climates. The description of these plants has been written based on numerous outside resources.
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Requirements

Hardiness 3 - 9
Climate Zones 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18
Plant Type Trees
Plant Family Rosaceae
Genus Crataegus
Common names Hawthorn, Black Hawthorn
Exposure Full Sun
Season of Interest Spring (Late)
Summer (Early)
Fall
Winter
Height 10' - 25'
(3m - 7.6m)
Spread 10' - 25'
(3m - 7.6m)
Maintenance Average
Water Needs Average, High
Soil Type Chalk, Clay, Loam, Sand
Soil pH Acid, Alkaline, Neutral
Soil Drainage Moist but Well-Drained, Moisture Retentive
Characteristics Fragrant, Showy, Fruit & Berries
Native Plants United States, Alaska, Pacific Northwest, Rocky Mountains, Midwest, California, Southwest, South Dakota, North Dakota, Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, Nevada, Montana, Utah, Wyoming
Tolerance Drought
Attracts Birds, Butterflies
Garden Uses Hedges And Screens
Garden Styles Informal and Cottage, Prairie and Meadow
How Many Plants
Do I Need?
Not sure which Crataegus (Hawthorn) to pick?
Compare Now

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