Alphabetical Plant Listing

Crataegus douglasii (Black Hawthorn)

Black Hawthorn, River Hawthorn, Western Thornapple, Crataegus columbiana, Crataegus douglasii var. douglasii


Crataegus douglasii (Black Hawthorn) is a large shrub or small deciduous tree with a long trunk and a compact, round-topped crown of stout, spreading branches armed with 1 in. long thorns (2.5 cm). They are clothed with shiny, leathery, oval, toothed leaves, 3-5 in. long (7-12 cm). In late spring to early summer, a profusion of unpleasantly scented, white flowers held in flat-topped clusters (corymbs) provide a spectacular spring floral display. The flowers attract butterflies, moths and other pollinators. They are followed by edible, deep red fruits which ripen to black in late summer. The berries may persist on the tree and remain attractive for a long time. The foliage may turn attractive shades of red, orange and yellow in fall, before shedding to the ground. Black Hawthorn is a handsome ornamental with its showy white flowers, glossy foliage, and shiny black fruits. Fire tolerant, it is an excellent soil and streambank stabilizer. Its brushy growth form makes it a desirable species for hedges and barriers.

  • Grows up to 10-25 ft. tall and wide (3-8 m). Will sprout and sucker to form small, dense, impenetrable thickets.
  • A full sun lover, this tree is easily grown in moist to wet soils. Tolerates part shade but best fruit production occurs in full sun.
  • Perfect as a specimen tree for lawns or streets, native plant gardens or for erosion control.
  • Requires only minimal pruning in late winter or early spring, to remove damaged, diseased or misplaced growth.
  • Keep an eye out for cedar-hawthorn rust, cedar-quince rust, fireblight, fungal leaf spots, powdery mildew, cankers, apple scab, borers, caterpillars, lacebugs, leafminers and scale.
  • Propagate by seed. 6-8 weeks of moist chilling improves germination of stored seed. Scarification may also be necessary.
  • Native to western North America.

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Requirements

Hardiness 3 – 9
Climate Zones 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18
Plant Type Trees
Plant Family Crataegus - Hawthorns
Exposure Full Sun
Season of Interest Spring (Late)
Summer (Early)
Fall
Winter
Height 10' – 25' (3m – 7.5m)
Spread 10' – 25' (3m – 7.5m)
Water Needs Average, High
Maintenance Average
Soil Type Chalk, Clay, Loam, Sand
Soil pH Acid, Alkaline, Neutral
Soil Drainage Moist but Well-Drained, Moisture Retentive
Characteristics Fragrant, Showy, Fruit & Berries
Native Plants United States, Alaska, California, Midwest, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Rocky Mountains, Montana, Utah, Wyoming, Southwest, Nevada
Tolerance Drought
Attracts Birds, Butterflies
Garden Uses Hedges and Screens
Garden Styles Informal and Cottage, Prairie and Meadow

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By Matt Lavin, Andrey Zharkikh, Flickr

While every effort has been made to describe these plants accurately, please keep in mind that height, bloom time, and color may differ in various climates. The description of these plants has been written based on numerous outside resources.


Requirements

Hardiness 3 – 9
Climate Zones 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18
Plant Type Trees
Plant Family Crataegus - Hawthorns
Exposure Full Sun
Season of Interest Spring (Late)
Summer (Early)
Fall
Winter
Height 10' – 25' (3m – 7.5m)
Spread 10' – 25' (3m – 7.5m)
Water Needs Average, High
Maintenance Average
Soil Type Chalk, Clay, Loam, Sand
Soil pH Acid, Alkaline, Neutral
Soil Drainage Moist but Well-Drained, Moisture Retentive
Characteristics Fragrant, Showy, Fruit & Berries
Native Plants United States, Alaska, California, Midwest, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Rocky Mountains, Montana, Utah, Wyoming, Southwest, Nevada
Tolerance Drought
Attracts Birds, Butterflies
Garden Uses Hedges and Screens
Garden Styles Informal and Cottage, Prairie and Meadow

Great Plant Combination Ideas with Crataegus - Hawthorns

Guides with Crataegus - Hawthorns

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