Alphabetical Plant Listing

Pinus echinata (Shortleaf Pine)

Shortleaf Pine, Shortleaf Yellow Pine, Southern Yellow Pine, Yellow Pine, Shortstraw Pine, Arkansas Pine, Longtag Pine, Spruce Pine


The hardiest and most adaptable of the southern pines, Pinus echinata (Shortleaf Pine) is a large evergreen conifer with short, spreading branches forming a pyramidal crown which broadens with age. Its evergreen foliage of relatively short bright green needles, 5 in. (12 cm), is borne in groups of two. The cylindrical brown cones, 1.5-2.5 in. long (3-6 cm), are produced on mature specimen (over 20 years old). Shortleaf Pine seeds are an important food source for birds and small mammals. The thin, flaky, black bark becomes reddish brown with evident resin pockets on older specimens. Shortleaf Pine is the most widely distributed of the southern yellow pines, being present in 21 states. It is a pioneer species. Many Shortleaf Pine stands became established after the Civil War when fields were abandoned. An important timber species, it is fire-resistant and very drought-tolerant. Perfect for native plant gardens or naturalized areas.

  • Grows up to 50-60 ft. tall (15-18 m) and 20-35 ft. wide (6-10 m). 
  • Performs best in full sun (tolerates light shade) in dry to medium, acidic, well-drained soils. Tolerates a wide range of soils, but prefers moist, sandy or silty loams. Drought tolerant once established.
  • Keep an eye out for pine beetles, weevils, Littleleaf disease, root rot and red heart rot. Deer resistant.
  • Prune to maintain shape. Fertilize 3 times a year with lawn fertilizer 3:1:2 ratio.
  • Propagate by seed. Sow fresh, untreated seed in late fall.
  • Native to the southeastern United States.It grows in the Atlantic Coast States from southeastern New York to northern Florida; throughout the Gulf States; and inland to western Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, southern Illinois, southern Missouri, eastern Oklahoma, and eastern Texas. Arkansas contains more shortleaf pine than any other state.

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Requirements

Hardiness 6 – 9
Plant Type Conifers, Trees
Plant Family Pinus - Pines
Exposure Full Sun
Season of Interest Spring (Early,Mid,Late)
Summer (Early,Mid,Late)
Fall
Winter
Height 50' – 60' (15m – 18m)
Spread 20' – 35' (6m – 10.5m)
Water Needs Low, Average
Maintenance Low
Soil Type Loam, Sand
Soil pH Acid, Neutral
Soil Drainage Moist but Well-Drained, Well-Drained
Characteristics Showy, Evergreen, Fruit & Berries
Native Plants United States, Midwest, Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, Northeast, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Southeast, Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, Southwest, Oklahoma, Texas
Tolerance Deer, Drought, Dry Soil
Attracts Birds, Butterflies
Garden Styles Prairie and Meadow

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While every effort has been made to describe these plants accurately, please keep in mind that height, bloom time, and color may differ in various climates. The description of these plants has been written based on numerous outside resources.


Requirements

Hardiness 6 – 9
Plant Type Conifers, Trees
Plant Family Pinus - Pines
Exposure Full Sun
Season of Interest Spring (Early,Mid,Late)
Summer (Early,Mid,Late)
Fall
Winter
Height 50' – 60' (15m – 18m)
Spread 20' – 35' (6m – 10.5m)
Water Needs Low, Average
Maintenance Low
Soil Type Loam, Sand
Soil pH Acid, Neutral
Soil Drainage Moist but Well-Drained, Well-Drained
Characteristics Showy, Evergreen, Fruit & Berries
Native Plants United States, Midwest, Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, Northeast, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Southeast, Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, Southwest, Oklahoma, Texas
Tolerance Deer, Drought, Dry Soil
Attracts Birds, Butterflies
Garden Styles Prairie and Meadow

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